1. Governments are responsible for managing their diplomatic work, and through their diplomatic agents they conduct negotiations of particular interest to their respective nations.
2. Without doubt, the ways and means for implementation of foreign policy tend to diversify as a result of the breadth and complexity of the issues affecting each State. The effectiveness of diplomacy as an instrument of foreign policy implementation depends largely on that State’s efficient analysis and response capacity in all matters relating to international matters.
3. While the holding of meetings of Heads of State to resolve complex policy issues has been considered an ancient diplomatic practice, such meetings were never before done with the current frequency and the diversity of motivations as have been occurring in recent decades. Originally, these meetings searched for ways to end conflicts or disputes, and especially wars that had significant impacts politically and economically. Later, the concerns of the governments have been directed at preventing the emergence of disputes, agree on a “balance of forces” to reconcile their interests (and in some ways their ambitions). Currently, they deal primarily with financial and commercial matters, and they place special emphasis on establishing and developing cooperation mechanisms in various fields, for which the governments use dialogue at the highest level.
4. The Head of State formulates and conducts foreign policy with the assistance of the Minister for Foreign Affairs). Sometimes it is executed without intermediaries within the framework of the so-called direct diplomacy at the summit of the Heads of State which is usually called to find solutions to contemporary problems of the most diverse nature. This direct diplomacy of Heads of State deal with certain issues that only recently were generally handled by international agencies or by the governments through their diplomatic missions.
5. The responsibilities of the government in the field of international relations include, among other key actions, receiving the diplomatic missions accredited to the country, the appointment and posting abroad the members of the foreign service of the nation, and the conclusion and entry into force of treaties, which in the case of many countries have to be first given parliamentary approval.
6. Diplomacy is usually conducted through diplomatic missions (embassies or permanent missions and delegations), and also through various meetings of Heads of State during state visits, the so-called official or working visits, and summits of leaders. Such meetings coexist with the so-called ministerial summits involving Foreign Ministers and also other categories of Ministers.
7. This “ad hoc” diplomacy through the Heads of State (or Government) can produce extremely beneficial achievements most rapidly and dramatically than can be achieved through the permanent diplomatic missions. However, careful consideration should be given to the effects of the proliferation of these visits since they increase the risks of this kind of diplomacy not producing their anticipated potential benefits. In case of failure or impasse in negotiations at the highest levels of the respective States, there would be no higher authority to turn to, and this is precisely why the exercise of diplomacy through diplomatic missions remains as an advantageous factor.
8. However, there are benefits obtained as a result of visits Heads of State (or Government) to other countries, with regard to strengthening the linkages between the nations and the opening up of personal contacts between the leaders. Particularly important are the direct negotiations between Heads of State and the signing of agreements and other international instruments for closer bilateral cooperation – an essential part of the agenda of such visits. These actions result in a significant way in obtaining certain goals and targets envisaged in the framework of foreign policy of the respective States.
© by Odeen Ishmael